How do you read a seismic map?

How do you read a seismic map?

Step three: interpretation

  1. Time structure maps with faults.
  2. Depth structure maps.
  3. Seismic facies maps for reservoir, source, or seal analysis.
  4. Seismic amplitude maps for DHI analysis.
  5. Thickness maps inferred from seismic tuning analysis.
  6. Fault plane maps.
  7. Fault plane maps with cross-fault sand juxtaposition for seal analysis.

How do you acquire seismic data?

Seismic acquisition requires the use of a seismic source at specified locations for a seismic survey, and the energy that travels within the subsurface as seismic waves generated by the source gets recorded at specified locations on the surface by what is known as receivers (geophones or hydrophones).

How do you identify faults on a seismic section?

When geoscientists interpret seismic data, the most straightforward way to identify a fault is by seeing a significant displacement in a set of seismic reflectors. It does not take a highly trained eye to see the many faults in the New Zealand seismic line if Figure 2.

What can be learned from analysis of seismic sections?

Seismic attribute analysis provides information related to structure, stratigraphy, and reservoir properties. Such analysis may give an indication of the thickness and of the nature of the upper and lower contacts of a sand bed.

What is a seismic hazard zone?

A seismic hazard zone describes an area with a particular level of hazard due to earthquakes. Typically, a high seismic hazard zone is nearest a seismic zone where there are more earthquakes, and a lower seismic hazard zone is farther away from a seismic zone.

What is seismic processing?

1. n. [Geophysics] Alteration of seismic data to suppress noise, enhance signal and migrate seismic events to the appropriate location in space.

What is seismic field data?

a series of data processing steps to produce seismic images of the Earth’s interior in. terms of variations in seismic velocity and density. The ground movements recorded by. seismic sensors (such as geophones and seismometers onshore, or hydrophones and.

What are 2 types of waves generated by earthquakes?

Types of Seismic Waves There are several different kinds of seismic waves, and they all move in different ways. The two main types of waves are body waves and surface waves. Body waves can travel through the Earth’s inner layers, but surface waves can only move along the surface of the planet like ripples on water.

What is seismic section?

1. n. [Geophysics] A display of seismic data along a line, such a 2D seismic profile or a profile extracted from a volume of 3D seismic data. A seismic section consists of numerous traces with location given along the x-axis and two-way traveltime or depth along the y-axis.

What is a normal fault?

Normal, or Dip-slip, faults are inclined fractures where the blocks have mostly shifted vertically. If the rock mass above an inclined fault moves down, the fault is termed normal, whereas if the rock above the fault moves up, the fault is termed a Reverse fault.

Why is seismic inversion?

Because of its efficiency and quality, most oil and gas companies now use seismic inversion to increase the resolution and reliability of the data and to improve estimation of rock properties including porosity and net pay. There are many different techniques used in seismic inversion.

What are the four types of seismic zones?

Based on the past seismic history, Bureau of Indian Standards grouped the country into four seismic zones namely Zone-II, Zone-III, Zone-IV and Zone-V. Of all these four zones, Zone-V is the most seismic active region whereas Zone-II is the least.

How to distinguish 2D and 3D seismic data?

Distinguish seismic data types: marine vs. land and 2D vs. 3D. Learn key terminology about seismic principles, data acquisition, and processing. Identify information available on field or shot records and processed seismic sections, side labels and SEG-Y headers.

Where did ONGC do 3D seismic data acquisition?

During my training at ONGC Chennai, I had associated with the 2D and 3D Land Seismic Data Acquisition undertaken by three of the geophysical parties (identity not revealed) exploring Oil and Natural Gas in the operational areas of the Krishna-Godavari basin.

Which is the best seismic data acquisition software?

We will use OMNI 3D* seismic survey design software to demonstrate acquisition concepts such as geometry layout, azimuth, fold, and offset. We will discuss marine 3D field configurations such as NAZ, WAZ, RAZ and coil* shooting, field components and acquisition parameters using several offshore examples from different acquisition companies.

How is seismic data used in the oil field?

Even during the production of an oilfield, seismic data remains relevant, for example with the use of 4D seismic – second 3D acquisition with the same parameters in the same area – to assess the amount of hydrocarbons still present.

How do you read a seismic map? Step three: interpretation Time structure maps with faults. Depth structure maps. Seismic facies maps for reservoir, source, or seal analysis. Seismic amplitude maps for DHI analysis. Thickness maps inferred from seismic tuning analysis. Fault plane maps. Fault plane maps with cross-fault sand juxtaposition for seal analysis. How do…